These theories prepared by unemployedprofessor review help explain how learning occurs. The 20th century witnessed the first scientific research into learning. Cognitive psychology and behaviorist theories are the main theories and concepts that relate to learning.Behavioralism Early 1900s saw the rise of behaviorist learning perspectives. They became even more popular during the 20th century. Behaviorism stresses the belief that learning is about changing behavior through reinforcement reinforcement, and implementation. Behaviorists care about measuring behavior changes. Thorndike was a prominent behaviorist who believed (1) that stimulus responses will be stronger when they are followed by positive rewards effects; and (2) that repeated stimulus stimulus stimuli will increase their effectiveness. This learning approach is similar the “drill and practice” program. Skinner, another prominent behaviorist suggested an alternative form of behaviorism known as “operant Condition” behaviorism. Skinner believes that rewarding good behavior can help strengthen people and encourage them to do so again. You can control partial controlled behavior by using reinforcement agents. Learning can be described as the gradual or sequential approach to the desired partial behavior via reward and punishment. Skinner’s theory works best when it is applied in the most popular way: Programmable instructions. This is where you can determine sequences of partial behavior using a detailed task analysis.
Constructivism gained popularity in the 1970s and 80s. It states that learners are not passive receivers of information. Instead, learners actively develop their knowledge through interaction with the environment and the reorganization/reorganization of mental structures. Learning is a process that makes sense. They do not need to just record and understand information. Jerome Bruner as Jean Piaget both supported constructive learning. There are many kinds of constructivism. All constructivisms focus on the learner. The teacher is a cognitive guide and facilitator for the learner’s learning in this model. It is not a knowledge transmitter.
The constructivist approach to cognition was challenged by the “situated cognition”, and “situated comprehension” perspectives in the second half of the 20th century. These new perspectives stressed context interaction, especially social interaction. Criticism against the information-processing constructivism approaches to cognitive ideas and learning became more prevalent as the pioneer work of Vygotsky as well as anthropological as well as ethnographic advancements by scholars like Rogoff and Lave came ahead and gathered support. The core of this critical thought was that the information-processing constructivism saw learning as a process happening in the mind separate from the surrounding and interaction with it. Knowledge was seen as independent from its environment. Now it is obvious that cognition and learning are interdependent processes between an individual’s environment and the situation. Knowledge is knowledge that is located. It is the product or activity produced in the context, culture, and culture of its use. This new metaphor was used in order to create “social negotiations” and “participation”, both two methods of learning.
The core of experiential learning theories that are primarily based in constructivist and social theories about education is experience. They want learners to see how primary and secondary experience can motivate and inspire them to learn. Learning is about having meaningful experiences that improve your knowledge and behavior. Carl Rogers, who believed that learning could only be achieved if people are naturally inclined towards learning, popularized these ideas. They learn best when they take part in the learning process. Rogers believed learning could only be achieved through facilitation. You cannot teach someone directly. There is no way to teach someone else. (3) When they are in danger, learners are less likely to be flexible. Rogers believes in continuous, fluid learning that allows new learning to be reflected and modified by learning environments. This dynamic process is often mentioned in literatures that deal with organizational Learning.
Society learning theory
Albert Bandura developed a well-known theory for social learning. He is an expert in cognitive and behavioral frameworks. His specialties include attention, memory, motivation, and aspiration. Bandura’s theory states that learning takes place in a social context. He believes imitations are a way to teach people. Bandura proposed “reciprocaldeterminsm”, which holds people’s environment, behavior, and personal characteristics have a reciprocal impact on one another. Bandura believes that children learn from the environments they live in, and can influence other people’s behavior. These include attention and retention, reproduction, motivation as much as motivation. As it is well-known, positive role models are vital for learning.
Cognitive psychology was created in the 1950s. Cognitive psychology was instrumental in ending behaviorism. Cognitive psychology doesn’t see people as a collection if responses to external stimuli. This is how behavioralists understood cognitive psychological. They are information processors. Cognitive psychology was capable of recognizing advanced mental phenomena that behavioral scientists could not. This was made possible by the invention the computer, an electronic device that is identical to the human brain. In cognitive psychology, education is looked at as the acquisition of knowledge: the learner is an information-processing unit who collects and absorbs information, undertakes cognitive operating actions on them, and stocks it in memory. It prefers to learn by listening and reading books. It can even passively listen to and be taught by teachers.
Howard Gardner’s 1982 theory on multiple intelligences refuted any notion that learning is universally accessible and everyone experiences it the same way. He also dismissed the notion that intelligence was limited to one ability. Gardner believes intelligence is a mixture of multiple “intelligences”. These intelligences include: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. While his theories may be speculations, teachers find them helpful in expanding their conceptual framework beyond that which is possible through testing, skills, curriculum, and curriculum. Gardner believes multiple intelligences can help students achieve their educational goals.
In practice, it is known as a learning network.
Many of these concepts can be found in “Situated Learning Theory”, The “Community of Practice”, along with other learning theories. Jean Lave, Etienne Youther created them. The theory and practice for situated Learning recognize that learning cannot be done in isolation. It emphasizes the need to be able to communicate, negotiate and engage with nature knowledge. The theory states that learning is most efficient when people are in a group. The place where interaction takes places – e.g. A community of practice is a place where people get together, e.g. They collaborate to solve problems, trust one another, and learn from each others. These interactions can help create socio capital within a community that enhances the wellbeing of everyone. Thomas Sergiovanni also believes that learning is more productive when it is done in community. Sergiovanni claims that learning will be more efficient when learning takes place in learning communities where teachers are learner-centered. They could also include the workplace or other organizations.
Skills and learning for 21st Century
You can now learn 21st Century skills. Classrooms should encourage 21st Century skills. It is important to have core subject areas. English, mathematics, and geography. 21st Century topics include global consciousness, healthcare literacy, financial literacy, and financial, entrepreneurial literacy. As well as learning and media literacy and life and career skills. (Flexibility, adaptability. initiative. self-direction. You will also need to have cross-cultural and social skills. Leadership, accountability, leadership. This knowledge and skill can be gained through group learning and thematic project. It is inquiry-based collaborative.