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Defining Two Nation Theory
- A theory is a belief, policy, or procedure proposed or followed as the basis of action.
- Nation: Group of people who share real or imagined common history, culture, language or ethnic origin, often possessing or seeking its own government.
- Two Nations is the concept or fact of the existence of two nations in any geography.
- In the context of Subcontinent Two Nation Theory base on
- Two Nations (Muslims and Hindus)
- that have their distinct identity/social orders and religions
- Muslim and Hindus social, cultural, religious, economic and political differences
- This theory gave birth to two distinct political ideologies which caused the partition of the sub-continent.
The Two Nation Theory
• The foundation of Pakistan was laid down on the very day when the first Indian had embraced Islam.
• In spite of living together for centuries the two communities did not forget their individual cultures and civilization.
• It raised a direction for the Muslims on the basis of which Pakistan was achieved.
- The history of two-nation theory is as old as the history of man.
- The concept of Two Nations was given by Islam 14 hundred years ago.
- In subcontinent Two Nation Theory is as old as the first person embraced Islam.
- In spite of living thousand-year together/common things;
- Both maintained their separate identity.
- Religion had provided them such a strong base for nationalism
- Which altogether made the Muslims and everything different from Hindus
- Al – Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D
- In his famous book “Kitab-ul-Hind”
- Hindu society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries.
- The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course.
- The Hindu entirely differ from the Muslim in every respect which other nation has the common.
- The first difference was that of language.
- They totally differ from us in religion, as we believe in nothing in which they believe and vice versa.
Sheikh Ahmed Sirhandi (1564-1624)
- Known as Mujadid (Renovator of Islam).
- The stance against the Din-e-Elahi (1582)
- A number of publications (8).
- Letters to the rulers regarding social and religious issues (536 in three volumes)
- Called Akbar’s period was “the age of Islamic poverty”.
- Used Term “Bidat”
- Fixed the responsibilities of rulers.
- Oneness of appearance, as opposed to oneness of Being (wahdat al-wujud), as taught by Ibn al-Arabi.
- The doctrine taught by the Indian Sufi Ahmad al-Sirhindi as an attempt to integrate reformist Sufi ideas into a Sunni framework
Shah Walli Ullah (1703-1762)
- Qutub-ud-Din Ahmed
- His father was a leading Hanafi Jurist/Islamic Scholar___Founder of Madras-e-Raheemiya.
- He performed Hajj– spent eight years in learning Fiqah and Hadees –returned in 1732.
- Observed the conditions of the Muslim ummah in the whole world.
- Assigned tasks in India through a dream, training the students, and give awareness to the Muslims of the sub-continent.
- Indian Muslim community experienced severe problems and un-Islamic practices.
- The Muslim downfall was started.
- Bad socio-economic spheres.
- Religiously Muslims were not in a satisfactory environment.
Reforms of Shah Wali Ullah
- Religious Reforms
- Irrational following of Islam, need of ijtihad
- Emphasizing the fundamentals of Islam.
- Translate Quran into the Persian language.
- Tried to create a balance among four schools like Hanafi, Hambali, Shafi, and Malaki through “Al Insaf Fi Bayan SahabAl Ikhtilaf”.
- Emphasize and be forced on Jihad.
- Tried to remove differences between Uluma and Sufis
Social, Political and Economic Reforms
- Tried to enhance the morale of the Muslim community in India.
- Preach the Islamic teachings in a rational way.
- Set up a social order basis of unity, brotherhood, fraternity, and economic equality
- Political Reforms:
- Letter to Mughal rulers…..criticize their ruling strategies and their luxuries lifestyle.
- Letter to Ahmed Shah Abdali to defend Muslim rule in India against Marhatta rebellions
- Criticize the Economic Balance.
- Rights of laborers
- Raise the voice against the high taxes that were imposed by the Mughal rulers.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
- Hindu Muslim Unity
- Urdu Hindi Controversy 1867
- Sir Syed Ahmed Khan first used the word ‘Two Nations’ for Hindus and Muslims.
- Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was convinced by the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims
- That both nations cannot stay unite in a single country and the future of the Muslims will safe only if they have their own separate country.
Quaid-i-Azam and Allama Muhammad Iqbal and others
- Discussed in First Lectures the contribution of Quaid-i-Azam and Allama Muhammad Iqbal, John Bright
- 1858 John Bright gave the concept of a separate state for the Muslims of the sub-continent. • Syed Jamal Ud Din Afghani
- In 1879 Maulana Jamal-ud-Din Afghani gave the concept of Two Nations in the sub-continent.
- Maulana Abdul Haleem Sharar
- In 1890 MaulanaAbdul Haleem gave the concept of the Two-Nation Theory.
- MolanaAshraf Ali Thanvi
- In 1928, on the basis of separate identity, MaulanaAshraf Ali Thanvi talked about the separate state of the Muslims.
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali
- Chaudhry Rehmat Ali in 1933 suggested the name of Pakistan on the base of Two Nation Theory, he was a student of the Cambridge University of England
Differentiating Causes Led to Strengthen Two Nation Theory
- There are a few factors that split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two nations. It has been discussed in the first lecture and third lecture
- Religious Differences
- Hindu Nationalism
- Cultural Differences
- Social differences
- Economic Differences
- Educational Differences
- Political Differences
Importance of the Two-Nation Theory
- Two Nation Theory has been a very important factor in the Freedom movement.
- It provides and strengthens the Muslim identity to Muslims of the Subcontinent.
- Work for Muslim Welfare
- Muslim Unity
- Ideology of Pakistan
- Common Platform
- Provides Track or destination
- Importance to religion
- Blend of Leadership
- Also gave the Muslims sense of liberty and freedom to wipe out the Hindu domination
- The Muslims realized that they would lose their religious and cultural identity if they remained a part of British India.
- They were not given a proper share in all affairs that led to the demand for a separate state.
- Above mentioned differences strengthen the case for a separate identity and homeland where they freely practice their religious practices according to Islamic teachings