Ideological Rationale of Pakistan with Special Reference to Quaid-i-Azam, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

Meaning and Definition of Ideology

  • Ideology is broad term which can be defined in various ways and meanings. 
  • The wordideology” is composed of two Greek words “ideo” and “logos”.
  • Means “the science or study of ideas”.
  • The ideology of any nation reflects the ideals and aspirations of its people, and religion, and cultural shape, their thinking which binds them together. 


  • Ideology in a positive sense is a system of 
  • Beliefs 
  • Values 
  • ideals 
  • Convictions 
  • institutions 
  • goals 
  • people consider true, binding, and practicable

Emergence of Ideology

How Ideology Emerges? 

  • Ideologies tend to arise in the times of crises and social stress.
  • A society having no ideology, when faced with a crisis
  • May find it difficult to decide by reacting to its ethical and 
  • Practical aspects as to whether to confront it with courage or retreat from it.

Causes of Emergence of Ideology

  • When a significant purpose becomes a joint ideal of people’s life then it is a common ideology of life. 
  • An ideology emerges when a large section of society think or feel that 
  • They are being mistreated under an existing order 
  • when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in society 
  • when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them.

kinds of ideology

There are many kinds of ideology Some of them are under: 

  • Liberalism 
  • Socialism 
  • Marxism 
  • Capitalism

Characteristics of Ideology

The ideology must contain following qualities; 

1. Maximum Following and Source of Unity: Maximum people should follow and united on this ideology.
2. Harmonization: The ideology must be harmonized (in line) with the feelings, emotions, traditions, beliefs and values of the nation.
3. Collective Efforts: This can be obtained by collective efforts.

4. Leadership: To implement this ideology is imperatively required.

Importance of Ideology

On other hand importance of Ideology cab be explained under the following aspects; 

1. Motivating Force: For a nation that strives hard to bring stability. 
2. Common Platform: To the scattered groups in a society and brings them closer to each other on a common platform. 
3. Joint Line of Action: to follow a for the accomplishment goal. Give Birth Revolutions/cultures and civilizations 
4. Interpretation of the Past and Vision of Future: Offers an interpretation of the past, in the light of present and then predicts the future.

Ideology Of Pakistan

  • The ideology of Pakistan based on the Two Nation Theory 
  • That hold that Hindus and Muslims are two separate and distinct nations 
  • Having their own; 1.Culture 2.Civilization 3.Literature 4.Religion 5.Way of life, 
  • Muslims cannot merged with any other nation because their philosophy of life is based upon the principles of Islam. 
  • Due to all such difference, they need a separate State of Pakistan
  • Realization of the Muslims of South Asia as different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates.
  • Muslim Future in Democratic India: under the Hindu majority, they will not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state.
  • The ideology of Pakistan stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality in the Hindu society. 
  • The Muslims believed that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but are two social orders that produced two distinct cultures
  • Historical Fact: Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. 
  • Their eating habits, music, architecture, and script, all are poles apart.
  •  Such Factors proves that the differences are not just for the struggle for political supremacy but are also manifested in the clash of two social orders.
  • This clash ultimately would be the destiny of this territory 
  • To avoid clash a separate state named Pakistan in North west would be created for the Muslims

Factors which Led to the Ideology of Pakistan

  • Forces of Islam 
  • Socio-Cultural Differences 
  • Treatment of Hindus 
  • Attitude of British 
  • Two Nations Theory. 
  • Two Nations Theory 
  • Partition of Bengal 
  • Urdu Hindi Controversy 
  • War of Independence 1857

Evolutionary Process of Ideology of Pakistan

  • The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process.
  • Historical experience provided the base; 
  1. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan provides Basis of Muslim Identity
  2. Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; 
  3. Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality
  • Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. 

Quaid-I-Azam and Ideology of Pakistan

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a history-making leader who changed the course of history. Charismatic Leader 

Role of Jinnah

  • Political career in 1906 joining the Indian National Congress.
  • Joined the All India Muslim League (AIML) in 1913 .
  • Jinnah resigned from the Congress in 1920.
  • His early efforts to promote Hindu Muslim unity
  • THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed Hindus accepted the Muslim demands 
  • Separate Electorate· One-third Seats in Central Legislature · protection of minority rights Nehru Report 1928 
  • Fourteen Points
  • Act of 1935
  • Congress Ministries 
  • Presidential Address March 1940
  • That Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, with different social customs and literature.
  • Their outlook on life and of life is different.

Allama Iqbal and Ideology of Pakistan :

  • Iqbal gave the idea of Pakistan. 
  • I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they cannot live with Hindus in the United India. 
  • India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and professing different religions 
  • Islam is a living and dynamic ideology that can meet modern challenges 
  • Islam can salvage the Muslims 
  • Islam has always saved Muslim 
  • Islam to help them to overcome their 
  • The Allahabad Address of Allama Iqbal 1930

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and Ideology of Pakistan

  • Hindu Muslim Unity 
  • Urdu Hindi Controversy 1867 
  • Sir Syed Ahmed Khan first used the word ‘Two Nations’ for Hindus and Muslims. 
  • Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was convinced by the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims 
  • Both nations cannot stay united in a single country and the future of the Muslims will safe only if they have their own separate country.

Significance of Pakistan Ideology :

  • The ideology of Pakistan is very important in the freedom Movement of Muslism
  • Surety of Success: Supporter of its success and unity
  • Morality and Good Character: Due to adoption of IOP Muslim nation can be developed ethical traits, honesty and good character as well.
  • Development of New Islamic World: Aims to unify all the Muslims world
  • Inevitable for National Unity and Safety: Provides one platform and creates unity among them and sense of safety.
  • The ideology of Islamic State: Adopting this ideology the Muslim nation can be righteous and good Muslims.


  • Ideology plays an important role in individuals, groups, communities, and nations building and development.
  • It provides a track to achieve define certain goals. 
  • In Subcontinent Muslims were not given their proper place and share after 1857
  • They felt unsafe due to the attitude of British and Hindus that’s why they demanded a separate homeland for the Muslims to practice their religious practices freely without any fear which the Muslims in India are facing these days.